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In Sapiens, he explored our past. In Homo Deus, he looked to our future. Now, one of the most innovative thinkers on the planet turns to the present to make sense of today's most pressing issues. How do computers and robots change the meaning of being human? How do we deal with the epidemic of fake news? Are nations and religions still relevant? What should we teach our chi In Sapiens, he explored our past. In Homo Deus, he looked to our future. Now, one of the most innovative thinkers on the planet turns to the present to make sense of today's most pressing issues. How do computers and robots change the meaning of being human? How do we deal with the epidemic of fake news? Are nations and religions still relevant? What should we teach our children? Yuval Noah Harari's 21 Lessons for the 21st Century is a probing and visionary investigation into today's most urgent issues as we move into the uncharted territory of the future. As technology advances faster than our understanding of it, hacking becomes a tactic of war, and the world feels more polarized than ever, Harari addresses the challenge of navigating life in the face of constant and disorienting change and raises the important questions we need to ask ourselves in order to survive. In twenty-one accessible chapters that are both provocative and profound, Harari builds on the ideas explored in his previous books, untangling political, technological, social, and existential issues and offering advice on how to prepare for a very different future from the world we now live in: How can we retain freedom of choice when Big Data is watching us? What will the future workforce look like, and how should we ready ourselves for it? How should we deal with the threat of terrorism? Why is liberal democracy in crisis? Harari's unique ability to make sense of where we have come from and where we are going has captured the imaginations of millions of readers. Here he invites us to consider values, meaning, and personal engagement in a world full of noise and uncertainty. When we are deluged with irrelevant information, clarity is power. Presenting complex contemporary challenges clearly and accessibly, 21 Lessons for the 21st Century is essential reading.


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In Sapiens, he explored our past. In Homo Deus, he looked to our future. Now, one of the most innovative thinkers on the planet turns to the present to make sense of today's most pressing issues. How do computers and robots change the meaning of being human? How do we deal with the epidemic of fake news? Are nations and religions still relevant? What should we teach our chi In Sapiens, he explored our past. In Homo Deus, he looked to our future. Now, one of the most innovative thinkers on the planet turns to the present to make sense of today's most pressing issues. How do computers and robots change the meaning of being human? How do we deal with the epidemic of fake news? Are nations and religions still relevant? What should we teach our children? Yuval Noah Harari's 21 Lessons for the 21st Century is a probing and visionary investigation into today's most urgent issues as we move into the uncharted territory of the future. As technology advances faster than our understanding of it, hacking becomes a tactic of war, and the world feels more polarized than ever, Harari addresses the challenge of navigating life in the face of constant and disorienting change and raises the important questions we need to ask ourselves in order to survive. In twenty-one accessible chapters that are both provocative and profound, Harari builds on the ideas explored in his previous books, untangling political, technological, social, and existential issues and offering advice on how to prepare for a very different future from the world we now live in: How can we retain freedom of choice when Big Data is watching us? What will the future workforce look like, and how should we ready ourselves for it? How should we deal with the threat of terrorism? Why is liberal democracy in crisis? Harari's unique ability to make sense of where we have come from and where we are going has captured the imaginations of millions of readers. Here he invites us to consider values, meaning, and personal engagement in a world full of noise and uncertainty. When we are deluged with irrelevant information, clarity is power. Presenting complex contemporary challenges clearly and accessibly, 21 Lessons for the 21st Century is essential reading.

30 review for 21 Lessons for the 21st Century

  1. 4 out of 5

    David Wineberg

    Society 101 Yuval Harari is well known for his books Sapiens and Homo Deus. He has decided to squander his reputation on a book called 21 Lessons for the 21st Century. The basic problem is that every chapter is the subject of whole shelves of books, and putting them all in one book cannot possibly do them justice. What we have left is a set of 21 editorials, which might inform the totally uninformed, but provide little insight and no solutions. As “lessons” they are unhelpful. He has conveniently Society 101 Yuval Harari is well known for his books Sapiens and Homo Deus. He has decided to squander his reputation on a book called 21 Lessons for the 21st Century. The basic problem is that every chapter is the subject of whole shelves of books, and putting them all in one book cannot possibly do them justice. What we have left is a set of 21 editorials, which might inform the totally uninformed, but provide little insight and no solutions. As “lessons” they are unhelpful. He has conveniently distilled all the threats to mankind into three: nuclear war, climate change and technological/biological disruption. But only technological/biological gets examined. You’re on your own for climate change and nuclear war, which apparently don’t rate high enough for “lessons”. Despite those three most important threats, the most common theme throughout the book is criticism of religion, mostly Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, though Buddhism and Hinduism come under attack as well. Looking back from the perspective of the universe, Harari condemns all religions as pompous, pretentious, full of contradictions, and terrifically negative forces. In his chapter on Immigration, Harari boils down the entire complex situation to three superficial “debates”: -The receiving country must be willing -Immigrants must be willing to adopt “at least the core norms and values” of the new country -If immigrants assimilate, they become “us” rather than “them” and must be treated as first class citizens. Simple, inaccurate and totally missing the real issues. In his chapter on terrorism, Harari completely misses the point that the state has a monopoly on violence. Anyone who challenges that monopoly must be put down, no matter how many civil rights and freedoms are trampled in the process. He spends pages explaining how few people are killed by terrorists compared to traffic, war and disease. So why are we so afraid of terrorists, he asks. (Because the state wants us to be, Mr. Harari.) In the chapter on war, he comes to the magical conclusion that we’ve pretty much done away with it. So far, the only new war we’ve seen this century is Russia taking parts of Ukraine. He says countries see too much risk in starting new wars. He completely ignores (not for the first or last time), the effects of climate change, which will result in unprecedented and massive wars as countries face unstoppable waves of immigrants seeking water and land, as countries disappear from the face of the earth, and as those that have will defend it to the death against all comers, foreign and domestic. The final chapter is on meditation. Meditation is Harari’s solution to pretty much everything, because you can focus on what is real – what is going on in your body right then and there. He says he does this two hours a day, plus one or two months a year. If I had to summarize 21 Lesson for the 21st Century, I would say: throw off the false faiths of institutional religions and meditate instead. Not quite what I expected, and not much help in navigating the 21st century. David Wineberg

  2. 4 out of 5

    Anni

    It's Life as we know it, Jim! (But don't ask what it means). 'A wise old man was asked what he learned about the meaning of life. ‘Well,’ he answered, ‘I have learned that I am here on earth in order to help other people. What I still haven’t figured out is why the other people are here.’ As Harari explains: “We are now living in an age of information explosion … the last thing people need is more information. What they really need is somebody to arrange all of the bits of information into a meani It's Life as we know it, Jim! (But don't ask what it means). 'A wise old man was asked what he learned about the meaning of life. ‘Well,’ he answered, ‘I have learned that I am here on earth in order to help other people. What I still haven’t figured out is why the other people are here.’ As Harari explains: “We are now living in an age of information explosion … the last thing people need is more information. What they really need is somebody to arrange all of the bits of information into a meaningful picture – and this is what I try to do.” Following on from Sapiens and Homo Deus, both of which were entertainingly accessible, this investigation of our species has a more personal approach, yet is just as vigorously researched and remarkably impartial. There are so many fascinating insights that I wanted to highlight in this book that it is hard to chose examples, and many are frightening to contemplate, such as: 'Globalisation has certainly benefited large segments of humanity, but there are signs of growing inequality both between and within societies. Some groups increasingly monopolise the fruits of globalisation, while billions are left behind. Already today, the richest 1 per cent owns half the world’s wealth. Even more alarmingly, the richest hundred people together own more than the poorest 4 billion. This could get far worse'. However I'm sure that contributors to Goodreads will particularly enjoy the section on the importance of literature, especially for aficionados of SF :- “… it is equally important to communicate the latest scientific theories to the general public through popular-science books, and even through the skilful use of art and fiction. Does that mean scientists should start writing science fiction? That is actually not such a bad idea. Art plays a key role in shaping people’s view of the world, and in the twenty-first century science fiction is arguably the most important genre of all, for it shapes how most people understand things like AI, bioengineering and climate change. We certainly need good science, but from a political perspective, a good science-fiction movie is worth far more than an article in Science or Nature.”. On the whole, the message Harari imparts is a positive one and he does offer some hope for the survival of our species. At the end of the book he describes his own personal way to discover a ‘firm ethical ground in a world that extends far beyond my horizons, that spins completely out of human control, and that holds all gods and ideologies suspect’ This is the book I will pass on to my grand daughter when she is of an age to wonder why our world is the way it is. In fact, I think it is essential reading for every human being on this planet. Update: Many thanks to the publisher for granting my wish of reading an ARC via Netgalley

  3. 4 out of 5

    Bill Gates

    The human mind wants to worry. This is not necessarily a bad thing—after all, if a bear is stalking you, worrying about it may well save your life. Although most of us don’t need to lose too much sleep over bears these days, modern life does present plenty of other reasons for concern: terrorism, climate change, the rise of A.I., encroachments on our privacy, even the apparent decline of international cooperation. In his fascinating new book 21 Lessons for the 21st Century, the historian Yuval No The human mind wants to worry. This is not necessarily a bad thing—after all, if a bear is stalking you, worrying about it may well save your life. Although most of us don’t need to lose too much sleep over bears these days, modern life does present plenty of other reasons for concern: terrorism, climate change, the rise of A.I., encroachments on our privacy, even the apparent decline of international cooperation. In his fascinating new book 21 Lessons for the 21st Century, the historian Yuval Noah Harari creates a useful framework for confronting these fears. While his previous best sellers, Sapiens and Homo Deus, covered the past and future respectively, his new book is all about the present. The trick for putting an end to our anxieties, he suggests, is not to stop worrying. It’s to know which things to worry about, and how much to worry about them. As he writes in his introduction: “What are today’s greatest challenges and most important changes? What should we pay attention to? What should we teach our kids?” These are admittedly big questions, and this is a sweeping book. There are chapters on work, war, nationalism, religion, immigration, education, and 15 other weighty matters. But its title is a misnomer. Although you will find a few concrete lessons scattered throughout, Harari mostly resists handy prescriptions. He’s more interested in defining the terms of the discussion and giving you historical and philosophical perspective. He deploys, for example, a clever thought experiment to underscore how far humans have come in creating a global civilization. Imagine, he says, trying to organize an Olympic Games in 1016. It’s clearly impossible. Asians, Africans and Europeans don’t know that the Americas exist. The Chinese Song Empire doesn’t think any other political entity in the world is even close to being its equal. No one even has a flag to fly or anthem to play at the awards ceremony. The point is that today’s competition among nations—whether on an athletic field or the trading floor—“actually represents an astonishing global agreement.” And that global agreement makes it easier to cooperate as well as compete. Keep this in mind the next time you start to doubt whether we can solve a global problem like climate change. Our global cooperation may have taken a couple of steps back in the past two years, but before that we took a thousand steps forward. So why does it seem as if the world is in decline? Largely because we are much less willing to tolerate misfortune and misery. Even though the amount of violence in the world has greatly decreased, we focus on the number of people who die each year in wars because our outrage at injustice has grown. As it should. Here’s another worry that Harari deals with: In an increasingly complex world, how can any of us have enough information to make educated decisions? It’s tempting to turn to experts, but how do you know they’re not just following the herd? “The problem of groupthink and individual ignorance besets not just ordinary voters and customers,” he writes, “but also presidents and CEOs.” That rang true to me from my experience at both Microsoft and the Gates Foundation. I have to be careful not to fool myself into thinking things are better—or worse—than they actually are. What does Harari think we should do about all this? He offers some practical advice, including a three-prong strategy for fighting terrorism and a few tips for dealing with fake news. But his big idea boils down to this: Meditate. Of course he isn’t suggesting that the world’s problems will vanish if enough of us start sitting in the lotus position and chanting om. But he does insist that life in the 21st century demands mindfulness—getting to know ourselves better and seeing how we contribute to suffering in our own lives. This is easy to mock, but as someone who’s taking a course on mindfulness and meditation, I found it compelling. As much as I admire Harari and enjoyed 21 Lessons, I didn’t agree with everything in the book. I was glad to see the chapter on inequality, but I’m skeptical about his prediction that in the 21st century “data will eclipse both land and machinery as the most important asset” separating rich people from everyone else. Land will always be hugely important, especially as the global population nears 10 billion. Meanwhile, data on key human endeavors—how to grow food or produce energy, for example—will become even more widely available. Simply having information won’t offer a competitive edge; knowing what to do with it will. Similarly, I wanted to see more nuance in Harari’s discussion of data and privacy. He rightly notes that more information is being gathered on individuals than ever before. But he doesn’t distinguish among the types of data being collected—the kind of shoes you like to buy versus which diseases you’re genetically predisposed to—or who is gathering it, or how they’re using it. Your shopping history and your medical history aren’t collected by the same people, protected by the same safeguards, or used for the same purposes. Recognizing this distinction would have made his discussion more enlightening. I was also dissatisfied with the chapter on community. Harari argues that social media including Facebook have contributed to political polarization by allowing users to cocoon themselves, interacting only with those who share their views. It’s a fair point, but he undersells the benefits of connecting family and friends around the world. He also creates a straw man by asking whether Facebook alone can solve the problem of polarization. On its own, of course it can’t—but that’s not surprising, considering how deep the problem cuts. Governments, civil society, and the private sector all have a role to play, and I wish Harari had said more about them. But Harari is such a stimulating writer that even when I disagreed, I wanted to keep reading and thinking. All three of his books wrestle with some version of the same question: What will give our lives meaning in the decades and centuries ahead? So far, human history has been driven by a desire to live longer, healthier, happier lives. If science is eventually able to give that dream to most people, and large numbers of people no longer need to work in order to feed and clothe everyone, what reason will we have to get up in the morning? It’s no criticism to say that Harari hasn’t produced a satisfying answer yet. Neither has anyone else. So I hope he turns more fully to this question in the future. In the meantime, he has teed up a crucial global conversation about how to take on the problems of the 21st century. This originally appeared in the New York Times Book Review.

  4. 5 out of 5

    ||Swaroop||

    "Change is the only constant." "I am free to create my own dharma." This book has been an interesting, fascinating, enlightening, liberating, scary and an exciting read! The psyche of Homo sapiens... 21 Lessons for the 21st Century by Yuval Noah Harari is all about perspective on what's happening right now and clarity about the greatest challenges and important choices. This book covers a wide range of topics, from Disillusionment, War, Politics to Meditation. Homo sapiens is just not built for sati "Change is the only constant." "I am free to create my own dharma." This book has been an interesting, fascinating, enlightening, liberating, scary and an exciting read! The psyche of Homo sapiens... 21 Lessons for the 21st Century by Yuval Noah Harari is all about perspective on what's happening right now and clarity about the greatest challenges and important choices. This book covers a wide range of topics, from Disillusionment, War, Politics to Meditation. Homo sapiens is just not built for satisfaction. Human happiness depends less on objective conditions and more on our own expectations. These lessons don't exactly provide answers for the challenges, but are more focused on helping us think, research further and be prepared for the "change". The truth is that truth was never high on the agenda of Homo sapiens. But in truth, everything you will ever experience in life is within your own body and your own mind. Even though, overall, the book focuses on the important social, economic and political challenges, the content is much deeper and stimulating. "It is our own human fingers that wrote the Bible, the Quran, the Vedas, and it is our minds that give these stories power." "If you realize your dharma, no matter how hard the path may be, you enjoy peace of mind and liberation from doubt.

  5. 4 out of 5

    Atila Iamarino

    Harari sendo Harari. Mais um daqueles livros que mudou a minha perspectiva em uma série de fatores. Da sociedade japonesa ao movimento político atual. O livro pula bastante da discussão sobre super-humanos tocando o mundo do futuro, o que achei ótimo, já que é algo que ele discute bastante em Homo Deus. Em 2016, li o Networks of Outrage and Hope: Social Movements in the Internet Age, do Castells, que fala sobre como vários países estão passando por um movimento de descrédito da política, um misto Harari sendo Harari. Mais um daqueles livros que mudou a minha perspectiva em uma série de fatores. Da sociedade japonesa ao movimento político atual. O livro pula bastante da discussão sobre super-humanos tocando o mundo do futuro, o que achei ótimo, já que é algo que ele discute bastante em Homo Deus. Em 2016, li o Networks of Outrage and Hope: Social Movements in the Internet Age, do Castells, que fala sobre como vários países estão passando por um movimento de descrédito da política, um misto de decepção com os políticos e desapontamento quando percebemos que as promessas não serão cumpridas. Harari dá um contexto e uma perspectiva para isso, quando discute como estamos chegando em um ponto onde não há uma grande mensagem política que unifique as pessoas e a ansiedade que vem dessa falta de missão. Recomendo para qualquer um vivo no Século XXI. Harari tem um desapego e uma cultura que se combinam muito bem para uma descrição da humanidade sem julgamentos. Aqui discute uma série de problemas e transições que estamos enfrentando. Sinto que é um livro que vou ter que reler várias vezes, para tirar insights sobre o que estou (e o mundo está) passando no momento. Atualmente, para mim, a maior lição foi política. Mas garanto que tem uma outra lição para cada um.

  6. 5 out of 5

    Anton

    As always, masterful and exquisite non-fiction writing as we come to expect from Mr Harari. Delightful, wise and very perceptive. This book can be seen as an expansion and a companion to Homo Deus: A Brief History of Tomorrow. The attention of this volume is focused on the Present as opposed to Past or the Future. Some parts will make you feel inspired, others will sow a despair. But it is a relevant and useful book that will give you a plenty to chew on. Strongly recommended

  7. 4 out of 5

    Jenna

    Questions you cannot answer are usually far better for you than answers you cannot question." Has anyone ever asked you which author you would choose to read if you were stranded on a deserted island and could only have one author with you? I could not come up with any one writer until reading Yuval Harari. Now, I would without a doubt choose him. There might only be 3 books he's written so far, and though I've read all 3, I could spend years re-reading them and reflecting on all that is contai Questions you cannot answer are usually far better for you than answers you cannot question." Has anyone ever asked you which author you would choose to read if you were stranded on a deserted island and could only have one author with you? I could not come up with any one writer until reading Yuval Harari. Now, I would without a doubt choose him. There might only be 3 books he's written so far, and though I've read all 3, I could spend years re-reading them and reflecting on all that is contained within them. I suppose this doesn't really go with the quote above; after all, I'm glad to have answered that question! The quote is one of my favourites in the book and that's why I opened my review with it. In Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind Mr Harari led us predominately through the history of mankind. In Homo Deus: A Brief History of Tomorrow he focused on where we are headed as a species. Now in 21 Lessons for the 21st Century he addresses the major issues challenging the world today and what we can perhaps expect in the very near future. Hint: It doesn't all have to be gloom and doom and apocalyptic scenarios. As he wisely says, "The first step is to tone down the prophecies of doom and switch from panic mode to bewilderment." Since we cannot predict how AI and other technologies will change and (hopefully) improve, we cannot say with any certainty what the future will bring. Our world of the 21st century is vastly different to the world 500 years ago, when you could rightly guess that 100 years in the future would be very similar to your present day. Today we are constantly faced with changes, and the number of changes will only increase with each passing year. What should we be doing to prepare for this? How should we be educating our children for this uncertain future? How can we learn who we are before we find algorithms taking over our lives, making it all but impossible to then learn who we are? Yuval Harari addresses these questions and many others, including climate change, immigration, religion, technology, politics, terrorism, education, and secular ethics. As in his previous books, Mr Harari discusses many topics and gives us many facts and much material to ponder. This book is more philosophical than the previous two, forcing us to really think about ourselves, our stories, our world, our future. If we are to not only survive as a species but also to create a future that is good for all humankind, we must abandon our strict adherence to previous fictions, such as nationalism and religious myths. We can feel loyalty to our country and we can believe in religion, but only if we recognise that they are fictions, and that other humans have their own and ours is not somehow right whilst all others are wrong. We must not let our own world views make us feel superior to other humans and sentient beings, we must not think their suffering does not matter or matters less than our own. We must come together globally if we are to survive and flourish. "If we want to survive and flourish, humankind has little choice but to complement such loyalties [to nation, religion, etc] with substantial obligations toward a global community. A person can and should be loyal simultaneously to her family, her neighborhood, her profession, and her nation -- so why not add humankind and planet Earth to that list?" Let's leave behind our prejudices and tribal mentality that helped our hunter-gather ancestors survive. Our world is not the same as theirs; we are all connected and must work together to solve the problems facing humanity today. I recommend this book to anyone who is even remotely interested in any of these topics. As always with Harari's books, I learned so much and was encouraged to think critically about many things. I love his books because of this!

  8. 4 out of 5

    Mehrsa

    I've read all of Harari's books and I really like him as a thinker and a writer. This book is wonderful in the way all his books are wonderful and is flawed in the way the rest are. It is an act of bold ambition and also hubris to write a history of the world, answer the meaning of life, and to propose a path toward the 22nd Century. He certainly does not do all of that, but the act of trying is a lot of fun to read. A lot of his predictions for the future sound like fantasy and science fiction, I've read all of Harari's books and I really like him as a thinker and a writer. This book is wonderful in the way all his books are wonderful and is flawed in the way the rest are. It is an act of bold ambition and also hubris to write a history of the world, answer the meaning of life, and to propose a path toward the 22nd Century. He certainly does not do all of that, but the act of trying is a lot of fun to read. A lot of his predictions for the future sound like fantasy and science fiction, but as he readily admits, anyone who tries to imagine the future without sounding like a sci fi writer is certainly wrong. That's fine, but some of the predictions did seem to me to be pretty far fetched. The biggest strength of the book is the breadth and depth he uses to articulate the problem. The book's fundamental weakness then is that his solution (meditation) does not even come close to being a satisfying result. He sounds pretty nihilistic at the end as he dismantles every single "meaning of life" story. That is fine and maybe he really wants us to stop pretending that there is one. But if the book is going to be about lessons (plural) for a whole century, I would have liked to see some more lessons. Perhaps reducing suffering or increasing compassion? I mean, I refuse to consider a world that will be controlled by robot overloads in which the only way to survive is to count our breaths.

  9. 5 out of 5

    Maria Ferreira

    Preâmbulo As lições que se apresentam neste livro, advém de conversas que o professor Youval Noah Harari teve com várias pessoas: alunos, leitores, investigadores, políticos, etc. A lente que aqui se apresenta não é a de um microscópio, mas sim a lente dos óculos do professor. Este espírito não o tive na minha primeira abordagem ao livro, e talvez por isso o tenha afastado inicialmente por discordar do discurso de Harari . Primeira parte: “O Desafio Tecnológico” Lição 1 – Desilusão: O fim da his Preâmbulo As lições que se apresentam neste livro, advém de conversas que o professor Youval Noah Harari teve com várias pessoas: alunos, leitores, investigadores, políticos, etc. A lente que aqui se apresenta não é a de um microscópio, mas sim a lente dos óculos do professor. Este espírito não o tive na minha primeira abordagem ao livro, e talvez por isso o tenha afastado inicialmente por discordar do discurso de Harari . Primeira parte: “O Desafio Tecnológico” Lição 1 – Desilusão: O fim da história foi adiado Lição 2- Trabalho: Quando fores grande, talvez não tenhas profissão Lição 3- Liberdade: O Big Data está de olho em ti Lição 4 – Equidade: Quem Detiver a informação detém o futuro Ora, é precisamente nesta primeira parte que discordei em algumas das opiniões, que, diga-se: Harari já as tinha dissecado no livro Homo Deus, e que foi alvo de crítica por parte de cientista da área da computação e da área da biologia, embora tenha mudado um pouco o discurso, continua a bater na tecla do filme de ficção cientifica, os robots são “Os vilões”, e a humanidade a vitima. Nesta primeira parte, o foco é a biotecnologia e as tecnologias de informação, mas tanto a primeira como a segunda estão em processo de gestação, vemos algumas transformações, poucas, mas nada nos indica, e Harari também não conseguiu explicar: Como é que os Robots irão mandar no mundo, ou como é que os algoritmos irão controlar a mente humana. Profecias há por aí muitas, mas explicar cabalmente de forma lógica ainda ninguém o fez. Pedro Domingues, especialista em aprendizagem automática, explica no livro “ A Revolução do Algoritmo Mestre - Como a Aprendizagem Automática Está a Mudar o Mundo”, que estamos no encalce do algoritmo que conseguirá, conscientemente, se “re-auto-ensinar” (palavra minha, apenas para explicar o objetivo final do algoritmo mestre), mas ainda temos um longo caminho a percorrer até ao veredito final. Ora, se os especialistas ainda não encontraram a solução e poderão demorar dezenas, milhares ou nunca conseguir tal proeza, saberá alguém afirmar com garantias que os algoritmos irão dizimar o homo sapiens? Chega de divulgar aquilo que é o discurso do medo. A verdade é que ninguém sabe o dia de amanhã. No passado, não muito distante, milhões de pessoas trabalham na agricultura e morria-se à fome, hoje são poucos que trabalham a agricultura e ninguém morre de fome (refiro-me essencialmente ao Ocidente). É claro que centenas de profissões irão desparecer, mas isto não é nada novo, sempre foi assim. Há 20 anos quantos informáticos existiam? E hoje? Morreram os agricultores nasceram os informáticos que lhes sucederam e é assim ao longo de milénios, e assim irá continuar. Segunda parte: “O Desafio Político” Lição 5 – Comunidade: Os seres humanos têm corpos Lição 6 – Civilização: Só existe uma civilização no mundo Lição 7 – Nacionalismo: problemas globais precisam de soluções globais Lição 8 – Religião: Agora, é Deus que está ao serviço da Nação Lição 9 – Imigração: Algumas culturas podem ser melhores que outras Concordo em absoluto, Harari detém uma grande capacidade de análise, para além de um vasto conhecimento dos problemas que afectam o globo terrestre, os princípios nacionalistas, os regimes comunistas, o pavor que o ser humano ainda enfrenta sobre o desconhecido, apesar das inúmeras descobertas científicas que tentam explicar alguns fenómenos. É curioso que sendo judeu não se deixou levar pelo fervor judaísta, fala sobre as religiões com grande pragmatismo expondo o que cada uma delas tem de bom e o que tem de mau. Terceira parte: “Desespero e Esperança” Lição 10 – Terrorismo: Não entres em Pânico Lição 11 - Guerra: Nunca subestimar a estupidez humana Lição 12 – Humildade: Não somos oo centro do mundo Lição 13 – Deus: Não invocar o nome de Deus em vão Lição 14 – Secularismo: Reconhecer a nossa sombra Como o atentado de 11 de setembro de 2001 abalou o mundo, que impôs um medo exacerbado nas cabeças dos humanos, o medo do terrorismo, que na prática mata muito menos que os problemas de saúde no aparelho respiratório que a industrialização provoca. Há um aproveitamento político mundial, sobre o medo que os cidadãos sentem do terrorismo, que os instiga ao ódio e à raiva, legitimando as invasões que os aliados lançam sobre os países ricos em recursos naturais. Quarta parte: “Verdade” Lição 15 – Ignorância: Sabemos menos do que julgamos Lição 16 – Justiça: A nossa noção de Justiça pode estar ultrapassada Lição 17 – Pós-verdade: Certas notícias falsas duram para sempre Lição 18 – Ficção Científica: O Futuro não é como vemos nos filmes Esta parte é igualmente interessante, como podem ver pelos títulos das lições. As dicotomias: verdade/mentira, justiça/injustiça, real/fictício, responde-se apenas com o primeiro título Ignorância: sabemos menos do que julgamos. A verdade anda de mãos dadas com a mentira, há que ser prudente ao abraçar doutrinas. Concordo com as palavras de Youval, contudo, acrescentaria mais uma lição, emocional/racional. creio que temos tendência a julgar o mundo, ora pelo lado emocional, ora pelo lado racional, mas há alturas que nenhuma nos serve. Quinta– parte Resiliência Lição 19 - Educação: A mudança é a única constante Lição 20 - Sentido: A vida não é uma história Lição 21 - Meditação: Observar, simplesmente. A educação, fala-se tanto sobre ela, umas vezes bem (poucas) outras vezes mal, mas o que é certo é que todos falam sobre ela, todos têm grandes ideias, todos sabem exactamente o que deve ser feito, todos têm opiniões, conselhos e orientações para dar. Quando na verdade, nem mesmo os membros das comunidades escolares compreendem bem a complexidade da instituição, nem tão pouco percebem afinal o que é que a sociedade pretende. Quando os inputs vêm de tanto lado, e a maioria desses inputs estão desgarrados de qualquer contexto, apenas origina incompreensão.

  10. 4 out of 5

    Argos

    Harari’nin üçüncü kitabı olan “21. Yüzyıl için 21 Ders”, önceki kitabı Homo Deus’taki ivme kaybının azalıp, ilk kitabı Homo Sapiens’e yaklaştığı bir kitap olmuş. İlk kitabındaki 2 milyon yıllık insanlık tarihi anlatımı ikinci kitabında biraz bilimkurgu niteliğini alarak fütüristik kurgu (fiction) şekline dönmüştü. Bu kitabı yine bilgi yüklü, yine yazarın sözünü esirgemeden düşüncelerini ve sentezlerini net olarak anlattığı bir kitap olmuş. Kitabı beğenip beğenmemeniz tamamen baktığınız pencereye Harari’nin üçüncü kitabı olan “21. Yüzyıl için 21 Ders”, önceki kitabı Homo Deus’taki ivme kaybının azalıp, ilk kitabı Homo Sapiens’e yaklaştığı bir kitap olmuş. İlk kitabındaki 2 milyon yıllık insanlık tarihi anlatımı ikinci kitabında biraz bilimkurgu niteliğini alarak fütüristik kurgu (fiction) şekline dönmüştü. Bu kitabı yine bilgi yüklü, yine yazarın sözünü esirgemeden düşüncelerini ve sentezlerini net olarak anlattığı bir kitap olmuş. Kitabı beğenip beğenmemeniz tamamen baktığınız pencereye bağlı. Eğer sosyalist veya Marksist bir dünya görüşündeyseniz kitabı beğenmeniz çok zor, beğeniden çok eleştiri ağır basacaktır. Milliyetçi-ulusalcı bir kimlikle bakarsanız yine beğeniden çok eleştiri oklarını yönlendirisiniz. Dindar biriyseniz ve muhafazakar dünya görüşüne sahipseniz çok rahatsız edici bulmanız neredeyse kesin. Anarşizmi savunuyorsanız kitabı külliyen reddedersiniz. Yazar zaten kendisini liberal olarak tanımlıyor, liberal ekonomiyi, çevreciliği, LGBT haklarını savunan, ateist, laik, düşünce ve fikir özgürlüğünün ateşli taraftarı, sosyal devlet ve demokrasinin yanında yer alan, otokrat yönetimlere düşman olan bir düşünce insanı. Kitabın ilk birkaç bölümü Homo Deus’un özeti ve tekrarı niteliğinde. Bu bölümlerde sanırım çeviri politikası gerekliliğinden dolayı verilen isimler (sanatçı, şarkı vb) Türkçe örnekler üzerinden verilmiş, bence çok sırıtıyor. Keza sanırım Türkiye’deki mevcut yönetime yönelik eleştirileri elekten geçirilmiş, orijinali ile karşılaştırmakta yarar var. “Laiklik” ve “hakikat sonrası” (posttruth) bölümleri çok iyi toparlanmış. Son bölüm ilgilenenlere ait “meditasyon” bölümü, isterseniz okumazsınız. Bu tür kitapları çok yararlı buluyorum, size hap şeklinde komprime bilgi ve geniş kaynak havuzu sunuyor. Farklı bakış açısı ile düşünmenize imkan sağlıyor. Önyargısız, sizi etkilemesinden korkmadan okumanız halinde beğeneceğinizden eminim.

  11. 4 out of 5

    Otis Chandler

    Harari is one of my favorite authors of late, and his books Sapiens and Home Deus are among my favorites. This book builds on those, and is equally fascinating. He is one of those clear thinkers who is able to put together multiple macro trends combined with philosophical perspective. Sapiens is about the past, Deus about the future, and this book purports to be 21 lessons about the present. But it is also rooted in the past, and preparing us for the future. One of Harari's key themes in Deus an Harari is one of my favorite authors of late, and his books Sapiens and Home Deus are among my favorites. This book builds on those, and is equally fascinating. He is one of those clear thinkers who is able to put together multiple macro trends combined with philosophical perspective. Sapiens is about the past, Deus about the future, and this book purports to be 21 lessons about the present. But it is also rooted in the past, and preparing us for the future. One of Harari's key themes in Deus and this book is AI and what it will mean for humanity in the future. Many people - thanks to Hollywood - equate AI with machines that achieve consciousness - I tend to not agree with that, as I think it more likely that AI will just be exceedingly smart. But regardless, along with nuclear power and climate change it's one of the great risks to our future. And it is being advanced rapidly. This will have a lot of side affects, the top one of which is what will happen to humans. I think this quote might be one of the most key from the book, and certainly a key theme of Harari's: "for every dollar and every minute we invest in improving artificial intelligence, it would be wise to invest a dollar and a minute in advancing human consciousness." He goes on to further explain that our whole economic system is causing us to head in this direction, and to - except for a small number of people who opt to prioritize differently - largely ignore how to improve ourselves. "The economic system pressures me to expand and diversify my investment portfolio, but it gives me zero incentive to expand and diversify my compassion. So I strive to understand the mysteries of the stock exchange while making far less effort to understand the deep causes of suffering." Another consequence of AI that is fascinating is that it can enable intelligence at a scale we today can't comprehend, which can be dangerous if it is controlled by the wrong people. AI is just a function of the data you put into it, so it follows that who holds the data in the future, will hold the power. I think this is a key concept. "In the twenty-first century, however, data will eclipse both land and machinery as the most important asset, and politics will be a struggle to control the flow of data." Harari talks about trends in globalization, nationalism, immigration, religion, terrorism, and war. A common theme across these is that many people worry a lot that trends in these areas is a cause for concern and causing decline in our world. However the truth is that in most of them, we have come a long way and made a lot of progress - however because we live in an unprecedented age of information sharing - "media" - people are a lot more aware of even small issues in these areas. Also, our governments are predicated on keeping us safe from political violence, so even small issues like terrorism (small in the sense of how many people die from it each year) can have outsized importance to people. He talks about the danger of propoganda/fake news and fascism and how in todays technological climate there is more risk of them so its better if everyone understands them. He explained this really well in his TED talk - highly worth watching. But in the end, the only major recommendation Harari makes is around meditation. He impressively meditates for TWO HOURS per day, and TWO MONTHS per year. That is obviously a *huge* time commitment, and yet one he finds fulfilling. If we are going to invest in ourselves, the biggest way might be to start with our minds, and to stop worrying about all of these trends - because in the end, they don't matter to our ability to have a good, happy, loving life. "I think I learned more about myself and about humans in general by observing my sensations for those ten days than I had learned in my whole life up to that point. And to do so I didn’t have to accept any story, theory, or mythology. I just had to observe reality as it is. The most important thing I realized was that the deepest source of my suffering is in the patterns of my own mind."

  12. 4 out of 5

    Ilenia Zodiaco

    Recensione: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iwj8C...

  13. 4 out of 5

    kartik narayanan

    What can I say about this book that will do it justice? Nothing. 21 Lessons for the 21st Century is yet another seminal work by Yuval Noah Harari, which deals with the challenges facing us here and now. He tackles different topics from varying perspectives. Even if you do not agree with everything he says, one thing is for sure - he makes you think. Prepare to have your worldview expand if you read this book. It is a definite keeper.

  14. 5 out of 5

    Anni

    It's Life as we know it, Jim Or: Don't ask what it means! 'A wise old man was asked what he learned about the meaning of life. ‘Well,’ he answered, ‘I have learned that I here on earth in order to help other people. What I still haven’t figured out is why the other people are here.’ As Harari explains: “We are now living in an age of information explosion … the last thing people need is more information. What they really need is somebody to arrange all of the bits of information into a meaningful p It's Life as we know it, Jim Or: Don't ask what it means! 'A wise old man was asked what he learned about the meaning of life. ‘Well,’ he answered, ‘I have learned that I here on earth in order to help other people. What I still haven’t figured out is why the other people are here.’ As Harari explains: “We are now living in an age of information explosion … the last thing people need is more information. What they really need is somebody to arrange all of the bits of information into a meaningful picture – and this is what I try to do.” Following on from Sapiens and Homo Deus, both of which were entertainingly accessible, this investigation of our species has a more personal approach, yet is just as vigorously researched and remarkably impartial. There are so many fascinating insights that I wanted to highlight in this book that it is hard to chose examples, and many are frightening to contemplate, such as: Globalisation has certainly benefited large segments of humanity, but there are signs of growing inequality both between and within societies. Some groups increasingly monopolise the fruits of globalisation, while billions are left behind. Already today, the richest 1 per cent owns half the world’s wealth. Even more alarmingly, the richest hundred people together own more than the poorest 4 billion.This could get far worse. However I'm sure that contributors to Goodreads will particularly enjoy the section on the importance of literature, especially for aficionados of SF :- “… it is equally important to communicate the latest scientific theories to the general public through popular-science books, and even through the skilful use of art and fiction. Does that mean scientists should start writing science fiction? That is actually not such a bad idea. Art plays a key role in shaping people’s view of the world, and in the twenty-first century science fiction is arguably the most important genre of all, for it shapes how most people understand things like AI, bioengineering and climate change. We certainly need good science, but from a political perspective, a good science-fiction movie is worth far more than an article in Science or Nature.”. On the whole, the message Harari imparts is a positive one and he does offer some hope for the survival of our species. At the end of the book he describes his own personal way to discover a ‘firm ethical ground in a world that extends far beyond my horizons, that spins completely out of human control, and that holds all gods and ideologies suspect’ This is the book I will pass on to my grand daughter when she is of an age to wonder why our world is the way it is. In fact, I think it is essential reading for every human being on this planet. Update: Many thanks to the publisher for granting my wish of reading an ARC via Netgalley

  15. 5 out of 5

    Nelson Zagalo

    Adoro Harari. Adorei os dois primeiros livros — "Sapiens" (2011) e "Homo Deus" (2015). "21 Lessons for the 21st Century" (2018) é um livro diferente dos anteriores, nota-se que foi escrito de forma muito mais rápida, menos amadurecida, mais como resposta ou encomenda, o que ele próprio confirma quando diz que queria responder às perguntas que lhe foram fazendo nos últimos dois anos enquanto foi apresentando os anteriores livros pelo mundo fora. Na verdade este livro nada oferece de novo, lê-se c Adoro Harari. Adorei os dois primeiros livros — "Sapiens" (2011) e "Homo Deus" (2015). "21 Lessons for the 21st Century" (2018) é um livro diferente dos anteriores, nota-se que foi escrito de forma muito mais rápida, menos amadurecida, mais como resposta ou encomenda, o que ele próprio confirma quando diz que queria responder às perguntas que lhe foram fazendo nos últimos dois anos enquanto foi apresentando os anteriores livros pelo mundo fora. Na verdade este livro nada oferece de novo, lê-se como uma repetição dos argumentos já anteriormente esgrimidos, aos quais se adicionaram uns pózinhos de atualidade, e ainda uma ligeira variação do discurso, tornando o tom menos especulativo num mais assertivo. Quanto às respostas que Harari tem para as perguntas das pessoas, não posso dizer que tenha pena de não as dar, já que sempre considerei que aquilo que as pessoas perguntam nestes domínios, não é para ser respondido, mas antes para servir de objeto de dialéticas. Aliás, é no mínimo estranho que Harari insista tanto em dizer que não sabemos como serão as nossas vidas em 2050, menos ainda em 2100, e depois aceite tentar dar respostas sobre "O Sentido da Vida". Se quisesse resumir as 21 respostas dadas por Harari, diria que se sintetizam em 3 grandes chavões: "United Colours of Benetton" (Temos de aprender a viver em harmonia colectiva) "Aprender, Desaprender e Reaprender" (Teremos de aprender ao longo da vida) "Mindfullness" (O caminho para enfrentar a velocidade da vida está na meditação) Pois é, mesmo para alguém tão brilhante como Harari, dar respostas novas ou diferentes é difícil. Aliás, é um pouco como ele diz no início do livro, os filósofos andam há milhares de anos a tentar responder ao sentido da vida e até agora nada. Pois, o mesmo para Harari, ainda que tenha tentado responder baseado nos ditos dos Monti Python, era difícil ir além fosse por que via fosse, o que não tem mal algum, o que conta é a discussão. Neste sentido, recomendo vivamente a leitura a quem ainda não leu os anteriores dois livros, os restantes podem passar. Deixo alguns excertos que achei interessantes: “On 7 December 2017 a critical milestone was reached, not when a computer defeated a human at chess – that’s old news – but when Google’s AlphaZero program defeated the Stockfish 8 program. Stockfish 8 was the world’s computer chess champion for 2016. It had access to centuries of accumulated human experience in chess, as well as to decades of computer experience. It was able to calculate 70 million chess positions per second. In contrast, AlphaZero performed only 80,000 such calculations per second, and its human creators never taught it any chess strategies – not even standard openings. Rather, AlphaZero used the latest machine-learning principles to self-learn chess by playing against itself. Nevertheless, out of a hundred games the novice AlphaZero played against Stockfish, AlphaZero won twenty-eight and tied seventy-two. It didn’t lose even once. Since AlphaZero learned nothing from any human, many of its winning moves and strategies seemed unconventional to human eyes. They may well be considered creative, if not downright genius. Can you guess how long it took AlphaZero to learn chess from scratch, prepare for the match against Stockfish, and develop its genius instincts? Four hours. “That’s not a typo. For centuries, chess was considered one of the crowning glories of human intelligence. AlphaZero went from utter ignorance to creative mastery in four hours, without the help of any human guide.” “Human power depends on mass cooperation, mass cooperation depends on manufacturing mass identities – and all mass identities are based on fictional stories, not on scientific facts or even on economic necessities.” “I am aware that many people might be upset by my equating religion with fake news, but that’s exactly the point. When a thousand people believe some made-up story for one month – that’s fake news. When a billion people believe it for a thousand years – that’s a religion, and we are admonished not to call it ‘fake news’ in order not to hurt the feelings of the faithful (or incur their wrath). (..) Again, some people may be offended by my comparison of the Bible with Harry Potter. If you are a scientifically minded Christian you might explain away all the errors, myths and contradictions in the Bible by arguing that the holy book was never meant to be read as a factual account, but rather as a metaphorical story containing deep wisdom. But isn’t that true of Harry Potter too? (..) On 29 August 1255 the body of a nine-year-old English boy called Hugh was found in a well in the town of Lincoln. Even in the absence of Facebook and Twitter, rumour quickly spread that Hugh was ritually murdered by the local Jews. The story only grew with retelling, and one of the most renowned English chroniclers of the day – Matthew Paris – provided a detailed and gory description of how prominent Jews from throughout England gathered in Lincoln to fatten up, torture and finally crucify the abducted child. Nineteen Jews were tried and executed for the alleged murder. Similar blood libels became popular in other English towns, leading to a series of pogroms in which whole communities were massacred. Eventually, in 1290 the entire Jewish population of England was expelled. The story didn’t end there. A century after the expulsion of the Jews from England, Geoffrey Chaucer – the Father of English literature – included a blood libel modelled on the story of Hugh of Lincoln in the Canterbury Tales (‘The Prioress’s Tale’). The tale culminates with the hanging of the Jews. Similar blood libels subsequently became a staple part of every anti-Semitic movement from late medieval Spain to modern Russia. A distant echo can even be heard in the 2016 ‘fake news’ story that Hillary Clinton headed a child-trafficking network that held children as sex slaves in the basement of a popular pizzeria. Enough Americans believed that story to hurt Clinton’s election campaign, and one person even came armed with a gun to the pizzeria and demanded to see the basement (it turned out that the pizzeria had no basement). As for Hugh of Lincoln himself, nobody knows how he really found his death, but he was buried in Lincoln Cathedral and was venerated as a saint. He was reputed to perform various miracles, and his tomb continued to draw pilgrims even centuries after the expulsion of all Jews from England. Only in 1955 – ten years after the Holocaust – did Lincoln Cathedral repudiate the blood libel, placing a plaque near Hugh’s tomb which reads: 'Trumped-up stories of ‘ritual murders’ of Christian boys by Jewish communities were common throughout Europe during the Middle Ages and even much later. These fictions cost many innocent Jews their lives. Lincoln had its own legend and the alleged victim was buried in the Cathedral in the year 1255. Such stories do not redound to the credit of Christendom.' Well, some fake news lasts only 700 years.”

  16. 4 out of 5

    Peter Mcloughlin

    The author has a good sense of the forces that are shaping our world. The author really understands the current historical moment and the factors that people should pay attention to. From education to war and peace, to class warfare, to technological displacement, to climate change the author gives a good guide to the times we are living in. Good stuff.

  17. 5 out of 5

    Ahmed Alsahaf

    Unlike the author's previous books, this one was clearly "written" at the request of publishers; a pure marketing move. This should have been obvious, if not from the painfully commercial title, then from the fact that the author would not have had the time to write anything of substance since Homo Deus. The book is a collection of essays, and it would have been more honest to market it as such. The essays themselves vary in quality; some are fairly interesting and/or enjoyable, others so full of Unlike the author's previous books, this one was clearly "written" at the request of publishers; a pure marketing move. This should have been obvious, if not from the painfully commercial title, then from the fact that the author would not have had the time to write anything of substance since Homo Deus. The book is a collection of essays, and it would have been more honest to market it as such. The essays themselves vary in quality; some are fairly interesting and/or enjoyable, others so full of banalities that they would pass as generic blog posts on "the meaning of life" or "the fate of humanity". The most annoying thing was the attempt at faking cohesion by superficially connecting each chapter to the one after it. At times, this was done in such an obvious and contrived way using a single paragraph. My disaffection with the book's misleading marketing was only made worse when the book ended with the author's anecdotal experience with meditation. Specially since that mini chapter counted as one of the "21 Lessons for the 21st century". Notwithstanding the pompous title and the distasteful marketing, the book may still contain some insights for some people. But I would manage my expectations before reading it.

  18. 5 out of 5

    Krista

    Humans have always lived in the age of post-truth. Homo sapiens is a post-truth species, whose power depends on creating and believing fictions. Ever since the Stone Age, self-reinforcing myths have served to unite human collectives. Indeed, Homo sapiens conquered this planet thanks above all to the unique human ability to create and spread fictions. As Yuval Noah Hurari states in his introduction, his book Sapiens was about the deep past of human history, Homo Deus was about our deep future, and Humans have always lived in the age of post-truth. Homo sapiens is a post-truth species, whose power depends on creating and believing fictions. Ever since the Stone Age, self-reinforcing myths have served to unite human collectives. Indeed, Homo sapiens conquered this planet thanks above all to the unique human ability to create and spread fictions. As Yuval Noah Hurari states in his introduction, his book Sapiens was about the deep past of human history, Homo Deus was about our deep future, and 21 Lessons for the 21st Century is a reflection on our present; where we are in the today of 2018 and where he sees us up to about the year 2050. Considering categories such as Work, Nationalism, War, and God, Hurari's primary point is that it's all fiction: Liberalism, Capitalism, Religion, National Borders; these are all simply stories that we tell ourselves and the biggest hurdle we are about to face is sleepwalking into a greater interface with “Big Data algorithms” and allowing them to shape our reality; allowing them to provide the new fictions by which we organise our thoughts about how the world works, enriching the few and enslaving the rest. Seemingly out of nowhere, the final chapter in this book is on the benefits of meditation – of recognising that the only reality is the fact of one's own body – and while I have long understood that meditation is an integral part of Harari's writing process, it's primacy here surprised me (not in a bad way, it just pushed the whole premise out of History and into a New Agey category in my mind). If John Lennon sang, “Imagine no possessions, no countries, no religion, too”, what Hurari is saying is, “We need to stop imagining that there are possessions, or countries, or religion”; and that won't be easy for our post-truth species without acknowledging that our brains are constantly creating these fictions. I received an ARC of 21 Lessons, and although I am not actually supposed to quote from it, all I want to do in this review is allow Hurari to speak for himself, so be advised: these passages may not be in their final forms. If somebody describes to you the world of the mid twenty-first century and it sounds like science fiction, it is probably false. But then if somebody describes to you the world of the mid twenty-first century and it doesn't sound like science fiction – it is certainly false. As Hurari begins with, we Sapiens found ourselves in the 20th century being asked to choose between three organising stories – Fascism, Communism, and Liberalism – and after the fall of the Soviet Union, we in the West believed that we had arrived at the “end of history”; that the spread of liberal democracy (even if it was achieved with the threat or fact of violence) was inevitable; we were marching towards one global community with freedom and liberty for all. But we suddenly find ourselves facing the resurgence of strongmen on the other side of the world, and to the liberals' horror, the rise of nationalism/populism in our own countries. From this opening, all of the rest follows: • In 1938 humans were offered three global stories to choose from, in 1968 just two, in 1998 a single story seemed to prevail; in 2018 we are down to zero. No wonder that the liberal elites, who dominated much of the world in recent decades, have entered a state of shock and disorientation. To have one story is the most reassuring situation of all. Everything is perfectly clear. To be suddenly left without any story is terrifying. • Any story that seeks to gain humanity's allegiance will be tested above all in its ability to deal with the twin revolutions in infotech and biotech. If liberalism, nationalism, Islam or some novel creed wishes to shape the world of the year 2050, it will need not only to make sense of artificial intelligence, Big Data algorithms and bioengineering – it will also need to incorporate them into a new meaningful narrative. • Twentieth-century communism assumed that the working class was vital for the economy, and communist thinkers tried to teach the proletariat how to translate its immense economic power into political clout. The communist political plan called for a working-class revolution. How relevant will these teachings be if the masses lose their economic value, and therefore need to struggle against irrelevance rather than against exploitation? How do you start a working-class revolution without a working class? • We are now creating tame humans that produce enormous amounts of data and function as very efficient chips in a huge data-processing mechanism, but these data-cows hardly maximise the human potential. Indeed, we have no idea what the full human potential is, because we know so little about the human mind. And yet we hardly invest much in exploring the human mind, and instead focus on increasing the speed of our Internet connections and the efficiency of our Big Data algorithms. If we are not careful, we will end up with downgraded humans misusing upgraded computers to wreak havoc on themselves and on the world. • Radical Islamists have been influenced by Marx and Foucault as much as by Muhammad, and they inherit the legacy of nineteenth-century European anarchists as much as of the Umayyad and Abbisid caliphs. It is therefore more accurate to see even the Islamic State as an errant offshoot of the global culture we all share, rather than as a branch of some mysterious alien tree. • At present, it is far from clear whether Europe can find a middle path that would enable it to keep its gates open to strangers without being destabilised by people who don't share its values. If Europe succeeds in finding such a path, perhaps its formula could be copied on a global level. If the European project fails, however, it would indicate that belief in the liberal values of freedom and tolerance is not enough to resolve the cultural conflicts of the world and to unite humankind in the face of nuclear war, ecological collapse and technological disruption. If Greeks and Germans cannot agree on a common destiny, and if 500 million affluent Europeans cannot absorb a few million impoverished refugees, what chances do humans have of overcoming the far deeper conflicts that have beset our global civilisation? • When the peasants and workers revolted against the tsar in 1917, they ended up with Stalin; and when you begin to explore the manifold ways the world manipulates you, in the end you realise that your core identity is a complex illusion created by neural networks...In truth, everything you will ever experience in life is within your own body and your own mind. • There is no divine script, and nothing outside me can give meaning to my life. It is I who imbue everything with meaning through my free choices and through my own feelings...In itself, the universe is only a meaningless hodge-podge of atoms. Nothing is beautiful, sexy or sacred – but human feelings make it so. It is only human feelings that make a red apple seductive and a turd disgusting. Take away human feelings, and you are left with a bunch of molecules. Always an interesting thinker, I really enjoy Hurari as a writer. As in his other two books, Hurari is able to find spots in 21 Lessons to promote his most personal causes – gay rights, the immorality of the meat industry, the Agricultural Revolution as the worst thing that ever happened to Sapiens – and for the first time, he is overt about the solution to what ails us as a species: the practise of daily meditation as a way to see past the fictions our minds create; those stories that create all the pain and suffering in the world. I have no doubt that humanity is marching towards a revolution in the ways we live our lives, and while I'm not sure that I agree with everything Hurari writes about here, it was fascinating to see what he had to say about our immediate future.

  19. 5 out of 5

    Dr Osama

    إذا أردت أن تقرأ كتابا يثير في كل صفحة من صفحاته العديد من الأسئلة ويترك المجال لعقلك للوصول إلى إجابات مفتوحة فعليك بقراءة هذا الكتاب. عنوانه واحد وعشرون درسا للقرن الواحد والعشرين ومؤلفه ايفول نوح هراري. وبغض النظر عن جنسية المؤلف أو ثقافته فما يطرح من أفكار في كتابه يستوقف القاريء ويدعوه للتأمل في كثير من القضايا الفلسفية، التاريخية، العلمية، الدينية والسياسية. يمكن اعتبار الكتاب مقدمة لفهم طريقة تفكير العلماني المعاصر. ليس بالضرورة أن تتفق مع كل ما يطرحه الكتاب ولكنك ستشعر بأفكاره الناقدة تد إذا أردت أن تقرأ كتابا يثير في كل صفحة من صفحاته العديد من الأسئلة ويترك المجال لعقلك للوصول إلى إجابات مفتوحة فعليك بقراءة هذا الكتاب. عنوانه واحد وعشرون درسا للقرن الواحد والعشرين ومؤلفه ايفول نوح هراري. وبغض النظر عن جنسية المؤلف أو ثقافته فما يطرح من أفكار في كتابه يستوقف القاريء ويدعوه للتأمل في كثير من القضايا الفلسفية، التاريخية، العلمية، الدينية والسياسية. يمكن اعتبار الكتاب مقدمة لفهم طريقة تفكير العلماني المعاصر. ليس بالضرورة أن تتفق مع كل ما يطرحه الكتاب ولكنك ستشعر بأفكاره الناقدة تدفعك للنقاش والجدل وقدح الفكر. ويحفل الكتاب بمعلومات غزيرة جدا تدفع القاريء لمعرفة تفاصيلها بصورة أكثر تعمقا. يتألف الكتاب من خمسة فصول كل منها يتعلق بتحدي نواجهه في قرننا الحالي وهي تحدي التكنولوجيا، السياسة، الأمل واليأس، الحقيقة و المرونة. وتتضمن هذه الفصول أبواب عديدة تتناول مواضيع التحرر من الوهم، العمل، الحرية، المساواة، المجتمع، الحضارة، الوطنية، الدين، الهجرة، الارهاب، التواضع، الرب، العلمانية، ما بعد الحياة، العدل، ماوراء الحقيقة، الخيال العلمي، التعليم، المعنى والتأمل. للمؤلف كتب سابقة مشهورة وهي سابيانز و هومودياس أتطلع لقراءتهم في الفترة القادمة. أبرز انتقاد أوجهه للكتاب أنه تعامل مع الأديان وانتقدها بالتركيز على نماذجها المتطرفة وتغافل عن التيار الذي يمارس الوسطية والاعتدال. كما أنه لم يميز بين تعاليم الدين الأصيلة و انحراف التابعين لهذا الدين واستغلاله لتحقيق مطامع شخصية.

  20. 5 out of 5

    Ray

    I got a lot out of this book. I do understand the criticisms that Harari can be unfocused in this list of lessons, or rather questions without clear answers (but what's wrong with that?), and it is not quite the must-read that was Sapiens and even Homo Deus. That said, having a book of Yuval Harari disjointedly riffing about the state of the world is about the most fascinating kind of read I could ask for. The more, the better. His ideas about religion, technology, story-telling, identity, medit I got a lot out of this book. I do understand the criticisms that Harari can be unfocused in this list of lessons, or rather questions without clear answers (but what's wrong with that?), and it is not quite the must-read that was Sapiens and even Homo Deus. That said, having a book of Yuval Harari disjointedly riffing about the state of the world is about the most fascinating kind of read I could ask for. The more, the better. His ideas about religion, technology, story-telling, identity, meditation, the future, politics, nationalism, what went wrong with humanity and what went right... his very well-thought out takes on all these subjects are crucial indeed. (And for an atheistic author who doesn't believe in identity and basically disproves all religions, this sure turned out to be a surprisingly spiritual book.) If only there was a way to make everyone in the world read Harari and have some real perspective about all that is going on. Seriously, those with power may be just the kinds to not to seek truth--as is expertly explained within--but it sure would be nice if they did read more. This book is a series of conversation starters in many ways, but conversations that need to be had. How are the challenges of the planet earth, and not only the societal structure but the actual genetic makeup of the human species, how are they going to pan out in this dynamic century? Unfortunately, those in charge seem to have no idea what to do. Yes, the current regressive political movements are discussed, and one does come away more convinced than ever that such movements are extremely not equipped to deal with the problems that are coming? So what are we going to do about it all? I don't know. But, for a start, at least having thinking more deeply about the right questions could lead to some better answers!

  21. 5 out of 5

    Tuncer Şengöz

    Kitabın neredeyse her paragrafı, okurken (bir türlü) mantıklı geliyor, ama kitabın kapağını kapatıp üzerine biraz düşündüğünüzde bir şeyler kopuk, ya da eksik duygusuna kapılıyorsunuz. (En azından ben bu duyguya kapılıyorum) Sanırım Harari'nin de kafası epeyce karışık. Kitabın Adalet bölümü en orijinal fikirlerin olduğu bölüm. Adalet duygumuzun neden bulanık olduğuna Harari'nin getirdiği açıklamalar oldukça ilginç. Bilim Kurgu bölümü bence kitabın en sığ ve yanlış yorumlanmış bölümü. Sanırım Harar Kitabın neredeyse her paragrafı, okurken (bir türlü) mantıklı geliyor, ama kitabın kapağını kapatıp üzerine biraz düşündüğünüzde bir şeyler kopuk, ya da eksik duygusuna kapılıyorsunuz. (En azından ben bu duyguya kapılıyorum) Sanırım Harari'nin de kafası epeyce karışık. Kitabın Adalet bölümü en orijinal fikirlerin olduğu bölüm. Adalet duygumuzun neden bulanık olduğuna Harari'nin getirdiği açıklamalar oldukça ilginç. Bilim Kurgu bölümü bence kitabın en sığ ve yanlış yorumlanmış bölümü. Sanırım Harari bilim kurguyu çok hafife alıyor, ya da bilim kurgunun belli bir alt-türüne aşırı vurgu yaparak türü sıradanlaştırıyor. Bilim kurgu edebiyatına çok hakim olmadığını düşünüyorum. Harari'nin genel yaklaşımında bir başka sorun, olay ve olguları tarihsel bağlamından kopartarak yorumlaması. Mesela koskoca SSCB tarihini, Stalin dönemine indirgeyip (ki bir savaş ve işgal ile yok olma tehlikesi beliren bir zamandır) bu kadar katı eleştirmesinin, Sovyetlerin büyük başarılarına ve (öyle veya böyle) eşitlikçi bir toplum kurma gayretlerine haksızlık olduğunu düşünüyorum. Öyle veya böyle; bence 2018'in en iyi kitaplarından biri. (Zaten goodreads oylamasında non-fiction alanında oyumu bu kitaba verdim) Benim favorim gene de Homo Deus. Sanırım elim bir boşa çıktığında üç kitabını da (Sapiens, Homo Deus, 21YYi21D) yeniden okuyacağım.

  22. 5 out of 5

    Vityska

    це книжка, яку не можна прочитати "запоєм", бо вона містить стільки ідей та прогнозів і провокує стільки думок, що потрібен час на їх осмислення. І водночас це книжка, від якої дуже складно відірватися, тому що йдеться у ній про речі, які потенційно стосуватимуться усіх нас (або наших дітей чи внуків). От, наприклад Великі Дані (Big Data), їхні алгоритми і штучний інтелект. Здавалося б, який стосунок вони мають до рядового офісного працівника в Токіо, лікаря-терапевта в Чикаго чи до лакшері-діви це книжка, яку не можна прочитати "запоєм", бо вона містить стільки ідей та прогнозів і провокує стільки думок, що потрібен час на їх осмислення. І водночас це книжка, від якої дуже складно відірватися, тому що йдеться у ній про речі, які потенційно стосуватимуться усіх нас (або наших дітей чи внуків). От, наприклад Великі Дані (Big Data), їхні алгоритми і штучний інтелект. Здавалося б, який стосунок вони мають до рядового офісного працівника в Токіо, лікаря-терапевта в Чикаго чи до лакшері-діви в Києві? Насправді, безпосередній. Адже весь той масив інформації про нас (від того, які сайти ми найчастіше і найдовше переглядаємо, до біометричної інфи типу як реагує наш пульс на ті чи інші картинки) вкупі зі спеціальними алгоритмами, прогнозує Харарі, може вирішувати за нас купу всього - що нам купувати, які фільми дивитися, курити чи вести здоровий спосіб життя тощо. І якщо деякі речі відбуватимуться непомітно (Гугл підсовуватиме лише _потрібні_ і _найкращі для нас_, на думку алгоритмів, видачі (це як контекстна реклама, тільки зі ще індивідуальнішим підходом), то деякі суттєво обмежуватимуть наш свідомий вибір (страхова і/або роботодавець, за результатами детальних біометричних даних, вимагатиме кинути курити). А штучний інтелект в інших його проявах може позбавити нас роботи. Бо нащо лікар, якщо є машина з датчиками, яка аналізує всі показники організму, має доступ до бази даних усіх ліків/терапевтичних підходів/медичних протоколів і може призначити оптимальне лікування? Нащо рекламісти і піарники, якщо алгоритм сам підбиратиме те, що вам точно сподобається/вас найліпше задовольнить, тож проблема в рекламі відпаде? Коротше, я з цього зробила висновок, що виживуть лише креативщики і митці - ті, хто мислить поза шаблонами і дарує емоцію. Та й то не факт:) І отаких "уроків" та ідей у цій книзі навіть більше, ніж заявлений 21. Можна конспектувати, думати, обговорювати, надихатися і мотивувати себе до того, аби, врахувавши ці уроки від Харарі, будувати трішки ліпше майбутнє, ніж він ото малює :) Завдяки видавництву BookChef я стала однією з 30 осіб в Україні, які першими змогли прочитати цю книжку українською (бо офіційно в продаж вона надійде лише 10 вересня), і за це я справді вдячна! Раджу всім, хто хоче розуміти, які процеси відбуваються зараз із людством і що з того може вийти в майбутньому.

  23. 5 out of 5

    Reza Mahmoudi

    هراری در کتاب «انسان خردمند گذشتهٔ ما را بررسی کرد.در کتاب انسان خداگونه به آیندهٔ ما میپردازه اکنون یکی از خلاقترین اندیشمندان این سیاره به حال حاضر بازمیگردد تا عاجلترین موضوعات و معضلات امروزین را در کتاب 21 درس برای قرن بیست و یکم توضیح دهد. چگونه کامپیوترها و روباتها معنای انسان بودن را تغییر می دهند؟ چگونه با بیماری همه گیر اخبار جعلی برخورد کنیم؟ آیا ملت ها و ادیان هنوز هم بهم مرتبط هستند؟ ما باید به فرزندانمان چه چیزی آموزش بدهیم؟ کتاب 21 درس برای قرن بیست و یکم نوشته یووال نوح هراری، در هراری در کتاب «انسان خردمند گذشتهٔ ما را بررسی کرد.در کتاب انسان خداگونه به آیندهٔ ما میپردازه اکنون یکی از خلاق‌ترین اندیشمندان این سیاره به حال حاضر بازمیگردد تا عاجل‌ترین موضوعات و معضلات امروزین را در کتاب 21 درس برای قرن بیست و یکم توضیح دهد. چگونه کامپیوترها و روباتها معنای انسان بودن را تغییر می دهند؟ چگونه با بیماری همه گیر اخبار جعلی برخورد کنیم؟ آیا ملت ها و ادیان هنوز هم بهم مرتبط هستند؟ ما باید به فرزندانمان چه چیزی آموزش بدهیم؟ کتاب 21 درس برای قرن بیست و یکم نوشته یووال نوح هراری، در زمانه‌ای که به سوی قلمرو مبهم آینده گام بر میداریم، پژوهشی کاوشگرانه (عمیق) و روشنی‌بخش (الهام‌بخش) برای ضروری ترین مسائل امروز را ارائه می دهد.همانطور که تکنولوژی سریع تر از درک ما پیشرفت میکند، هک کردن، یک جنگ تاکتیکی به حساب می رود و جهان بیش از پیش حالت دو قطبی به خود می گیرد، هراری به ادامه دادن زندگی در این شرایط که همه چیز تغییر می کند و باعث سردرگمی می شود، پرداخته و سوال های مهمی را می پرسد که ما برای نجات یافتن، نیازمند پاسخ به آن ها هستیم هراری در قالب ۲۱ فصل برانگیزاننده که عمیق و در عین حال قابل فهم هستند،با زدودن پیچیدگی از مقولات سیاسی،فناورانه، اجتماعی و بیان توصیه هایی در مورد چگونگی مهیاشدن برای آینده ای کاملا متفاوت از زمانه ای که در آن زندگی میکنیم، به تحکیم و پیرایش ایدههای ارائه شده در کتابهای پیشین .خود می‌پردازد.چگونه ما می‌توانیم آزادی انتخاب خود را حفظ کنیم در حالی که کلان-داده (اشاره داره به الگوریتم‌های جمع‌آوری دادهٔ سایت‌هایی چون گوگل و فیسبوک) ما را می‌نگرد و زیر نظر دارد؟ نیروی کار آینده به چه صورت خواهد بود و چگونه باید خود را برای آن آماده کنیم؟ چگونه باید با تهدید تروریسم روبه‌رو شویم؟ چرا لیبرال دموکراسی دچار بحران است؟ توانایی منحصر به فرد هراری برای معنابخشی به جایی که از ;کجا آمده ایم (تاریخ) و آن چه به سوی آن می رویم (سرنوشت انسان)، توجه میلیون ها خواننده را به خود معطوف کرده است. در این نوشتار، وی در جهانی سرشار از غوغا و عدم اطمینان، از ما، ارزش ها، معانی و دقت نظر شخصی را می طلبد. در زمانهٔ احاطه شدن با اطلاعات نامرتبط، شفافیت و وضوح می‌تواند نقطهٔ قوت باشد. یان چالش های پیچیده دوران معاصر به گونه ای شفاف و قابل فهم، کتاب ۲۱ درس برای قرن بیست و یکم را به یکی از خواندنی های ضروری تبدیل کرده است این کتاب در 30 آگوست 2018 منتشر میشه

  24. 5 out of 5

    Lou

    Yuval Noah Harari, author of 'Sapiens', which looked at the history of mankind and 'Homo Deus' which looked to the future, is back with '21 Lessons for the 21st Century' a book which very much explores present day issues. As I enjoyed his previous two books I was excited to delve into this collection to see how it would compare. Just as accessible as the others it discusses important topical issues such as fake news, immigration, terrorism, and climate change, to name but a few. I found each top Yuval Noah Harari, author of 'Sapiens', which looked at the history of mankind and 'Homo Deus' which looked to the future, is back with '21 Lessons for the 21st Century' a book which very much explores present day issues. As I enjoyed his previous two books I was excited to delve into this collection to see how it would compare. Just as accessible as the others it discusses important topical issues such as fake news, immigration, terrorism, and climate change, to name but a few. I found each topic provided just the right amount of detail without overwhelming the reader, a fine balancing act if ever there was one! Each chapter flows beautifully into the next, and alongside the various topics are lots of citations. There is no doubt that Harari is an excellent writer, and here he has meticulously researched each of the "lessons". There is certainly a lot of thought-provoking material included in this book, and I can imagine it being of interest to a great many people. This is most likely destined to be another bestseller! With the sheer amount of hard work that has gone into it, and the honesty it provides, it certainly deserves to be. Many thanks to Jonathan Cape for an ARC. I was not required to post a review, and all thoughts and opinions expressed are my own.

  25. 4 out of 5

    Preston Kutney

    If you’ve read Sapiens and Homo Deus (which I really enjoyed), you can skip. This is basically a collection of Harari’s opinions on a group of topics somewhat relevant to today, repackaged from his first two books, with all the same strengths and flaws: good storytelling about human history, human nature, the future; but also the signature flaw in his writing - very little distinction between ideas that have substantial evidence and those that are simply his opinions.

  26. 5 out of 5

    Nadia Refaniadewi

    can't wait!

  27. 4 out of 5

    Begüm Saçak

    I wouldn't be exaggerating if I say this guy is a genius. In 21 Lessons for 21 Century Yuval Noah Harrari touches upon some important issues of today's world by drawing upon the technological and societal changes with a hint of history. Until I read this book, I did not realize how far we are from understanding and dealing with the changes we are going through in today's world. And it is such an interesting thing that we are trying to manage these new changes with outdated methods we have always I wouldn't be exaggerating if I say this guy is a genius. In 21 Lessons for 21 Century Yuval Noah Harrari touches upon some important issues of today's world by drawing upon the technological and societal changes with a hint of history. Until I read this book, I did not realize how far we are from understanding and dealing with the changes we are going through in today's world. And it is such an interesting thing that we are trying to manage these new changes with outdated methods we have always used, AND more importantly, it is obvious that we try so little to ponder what is happening in our world. I am glad Harrari did that for us. I was really impressed by the last chapter where the author mentions meditation - seemingly an irrelevant but useful chapter as he concludes by saying: We do not even realize our feelings and sensations completely as we go through life, how are we supposed to conquer the world? All in all, I believe this book, along with Homo Sapiens and Deus should be read by everyone. Harrari is one of the most influential intellectuals of our time.

  28. 5 out of 5

    SueKich

    Brainstorming the future. Superstar publishing phenomenon Yuval Noah Harari has racked up 12 million sales of his books, Sapiens and Homo Deus. From talking about the past, he now turns to the future. Some of it we already know of course – artificial intelligence, algorithms – but as he goes into the ramifications of this rapidly-evolving technology, it’s scary stuff: the systems that will know us better than we know ourselves, the lack of meaningful work, the looming prospect of human irrelevanc Brainstorming the future. Superstar publishing phenomenon Yuval Noah Harari has racked up 12 million sales of his books, Sapiens and Homo Deus. From talking about the past, he now turns to the future. Some of it we already know of course – artificial intelligence, algorithms – but as he goes into the ramifications of this rapidly-evolving technology, it’s scary stuff: the systems that will know us better than we know ourselves, the lack of meaningful work, the looming prospect of human irrelevance. Even scarier are the chapters on nuclear war and climate change. Just when nations should be pulling together as one united civilisation in whose common interest it is to find global solutions to global threats, we are being torn further apart by rising nationalism and entrenched religion. What’s to be done? With no ‘war of the worlds’ to push us into allied comradeship, one of the answers for Harari is education; rather than the conventional subjects, children should be taught the Four Cs – critical thinking, communication, collaboration and creativity. (To which I would add an E for empathy.) But other than this, the author is short on practical ideas. Despite all evidence to the contrary and with several words of warning along the way, Harari remains an optimist and believes that liberalism will continue to triumph. His relaxed style of writing makes for a highly readable book and I found myself highlighting a great many well-expressed thoughts: “When a thousand people believe some made-up story for one month – that’s fake news. When a billion people believe it for a thousand years, that’s a religion.” “Most stories are held together by the weight of their roof rather than the strength of their foundations.” “Nations and religions are football clubs on steroids.” But his final lesson for the 21st century is a personal one: the positive power of meditation. If only that was all it took. My thanks to Jonathan Cape for the review copy courtesy of NetGalley.

  29. 4 out of 5

    Rıdvan

    insan her iki uca dogru inanilmaz bir suratle ilerleyebilen anlasilmaz bir canli sinifi. Bilim ve teknoloji de son surat ilerlerken aptalliga dogru en az o suratte kosuyor. Cok daha fazla detay vermeyi dusunuyordum ama vazgectim. Kitap bundan uzun uzun bahsediyor zaten.

  30. 4 out of 5

    SueLucie

    I am becoming quite an evangelist for this book. I am keen to discuss it with everyone I know and, when it is published in a couple of months, I’ll be making sure they all read it. Perceptive and witty, seriously well researched, I was mesmerised by Harari’s take on the world as it is now and how it could be in the near future. He is the first to admit he doesn’t have all the answers to solve modern dilemmas but he is a whiz at distilling current thinking on our personal and global problems into I am becoming quite an evangelist for this book. I am keen to discuss it with everyone I know and, when it is published in a couple of months, I’ll be making sure they all read it. Perceptive and witty, seriously well researched, I was mesmerised by Harari’s take on the world as it is now and how it could be in the near future. He is the first to admit he doesn’t have all the answers to solve modern dilemmas but he is a whiz at distilling current thinking on our personal and global problems into understandable themes for discussion. Two themes struck me particularly. Firstly, the prospect of a physically and genetically superior elite based on how much you can afford to pay for technological innovations to improve your own body and those of your offspring is real and frightening. His ideas on how we might ensure fairness got me thinking. Secondly, I was fascinated by his thoughts on educating our children in the future. I am already a dinosaur in these terms, imbued with the three Rs from infancy and the product of a narrow national curriculum, but I am invested in the future success of my grandchildren. ‘In such a [21st century] world, the last thing a teacher needs to give her pupils is more information. They already have far too much of it. Instead, people need the ability to make sense of information, to tell the difference between what is important and what is unimportant, and above all to combine many bits of information into a broad picture of the world.’ ‘So what should we be teaching? Many pedagogical experts argue that schools should switch to teaching “the four Cs” - critical thinking, communication, collaboration and creativity. More broadly, schools should downplay technical skills and emphasise general-purpose life skills. Most important of all will be the ability to deal with change, to learn new things, and to preserve your mental balance in unfamiliar situations. In order to keep up with the world of 2050, you will need not merely to invent new ideas and product - you will above all need to reinvent yourself again and again.’ ‘…in the 21st century, you can hardly afford stability. If you try to hold on to some stable identity, job or world view, you risk being left behind as the world flies by you with a whooooosh. Given that life expectancy is likely to increase, you might subsequently have to spend many decades as a clueless fossil. To stay relevant - not just economically, but above all socially - you will need the ability to constantly learn and to reinvent yourself, certainly at a young age like fifty.’ An incredibly interesting book and very readable. I’d recommend it to everyone, young and old, but especially teenagers and parents of teenagers as its messages will have immediate impact for those generations. With thanks to Random House Vintage via NetGalley for the opportunity to read an ARC.

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